NOTE:  Patrons are encouraged to consider the information provided, to their own satisfaction, in light of their individual needs and requirements.



albumen/albumin: egg white.
alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs): naturally occurring chemicals derived from fruit or milk. 
ambergris: morbid concretion obtained from the intestine of the sperm whale. 
amniotic fluid: fluid surrounding the foetus within the placenta. 
anchovy: small fish of the herring family. Often an ingredient of Worcester sauce and pizza toppings. 
angora: fiber obtained from rabbits or goats. 
aspic: jelly derived from meat and fish. 
astrakhan: skin of still born or very young lambs from a breed originating in Astrakhan, Russia. 
bristle: stiff animal hair, usually from pigs. 
casein: Ammonium Caseinate. Calcium Caseinate. Potassium Caseinate. Sodium Caseinate. The principle protein of cow's milk.
cashmere: fine wool from the cashmere goat and wild goat of Tibet. 
castoreum: obtained from the sex gland of the . 
catgut: dried and twisted intestines of the sheep or horse. 
caviar: roe of the sturgeon and other fish. 
chitin: organic base of the hard parts of insects and crustacea eg shrimps, crabs. 
chamois: soft leather from the skin of the chamois antelope, sheep, goats, deer, etc. 
cochineal (E120): dye-stuff consisting of the dried bodies of scale insects. 
cod liver oil: oil extracted from the liver of cod and related fish. 
D3 (cholecalciferol): vitamin derived from lanolin or fish oil. 
down: underplummage of fowls (especially duck and goose). 
eider down: small, soft feathers from the breast of the eider duck. 
elastin: protein uniting muscle fibres in meat. Use/s: moisturiser in cosmetics
gelatin: jelly obtained by boiling animal tissues (skin, tendons, ligaments etc) or bones. 
glycerin/glycerol (E422): clear, colourless liquid which may be derived from animal fats, synthesised from propylene or from
fermentation of sugars.
hide: animal skin (raw or tanned). 
isinglass: very pure form of gelatin obtained from the air bladders of some freshwater fishes, especially the sturgeon.
keratin: protein found in hair, horns, hoofs and feathers.
L'cysteine hydrochloride (E920): manufactured from animal hair and chicken feathers, or synthetically from coal tar.
lactose: milk sugar. Use/s: tablet filler, sweetener, 'carrier' for flavouring agents &emdash; especially in crisps
lanolin: fat extracted from sheep's wool.
lard: fat surrounding the stomach and kidneys of the pig, sheep and cattle. 
leather: tanned hide (mostly from cattle but also sheep, pigs, goats etc). 
lecithin (E322): fatty substance found in nerve tissues, egg yolk, blood and other tissues. 
lutein(E161(b)): substance of deep yellow colour found in egg yolk.
mohair: cloth or yarn made from the hair of the angora goat. 
musk: substance secreted in a gland or sac by the male musk deer. 
oleoic oil: liquid obtained from pressed tallow.
oleostearin: solid obtained from pressed tallow.
oestrogen: female sex hormone from cow ovaries or pregnant mares' urine. 
pearl ('Mother of', or 'cultured'): concretion of layers of pain-dulling nacre formed around a foreign particle within the shell of various
bivalve molluscs, principally the oyster. 
pepsin: enzyme found in gastric juices. 
placenta: organ by which the foetus is attached to the umbilical cord. 
progesterone: sex hormone. 
propolis: bee glue. Used by bees to stop up crevices and fix combs to the hive. 
rennet: extract of calf stomach. Contains the enzyme renin which clots milk. 
roe eggs: obtained from the abdomen of slaughtered female fish.
sable: fur from the sable marten, a small carnivorous mammal. 
shellac (E904): insect secretion. Use/s: hair spray, lip sealer, polishes, glazing agent
silk: cloth made from the fibre produced by the larvae ('silk worm') of certain bombycine moths, the harvesting of which entails the
destruction of the insect. 
sodium 5'-inosinate: occurs naturally in muscle. Prepared from fish waste. 
sperm oil: oil found in the head of various species of whales. 
spermaceti wax: fatty substance found mainly in the head of the sperm whale, other whales and dolphins. 
sponge: aquatic animal or colony of animals of a 'low order', characterised by a tough elastic skeleton of interlaced fibres.
squalene/squalane: found in the liver of the shark (and rats).
stearate: salt of stearic acid Use/s: body building supplements
stearic acid (E570): organic acid prepared from stearin
stearin(e): general name for the three glycerids (monostearin, distearin, tristearin). Formed by the combination of stearic acid and
glycerin; chiefly applied to tristearin, which is the main constituent of tallow or suet.
suede: kid-, pig- or calf-skin, tanned. 
suet: solid fat prepared from the kidneys of cattle and sheep. 
tallow: hard animal fat, especially that obtained from the parts about the kidneys of ruminating animals. Use/s: soap and candle making
testosterone: male hormone. 
urea: waste nitrogen formed in the liver and excreted by the kidneys. 
vellum: fine parchment prepared from the skins of calves, lambs or kids. 
vitamin A (retinol): derived from fish liver oil or egg yolk.
volaise: ostrich meat
whey: residue from milk after the removal of the casein and most of the fat. By-product of cheese making. 
wool: hair forming the fleecy coat of the domesticated sheep (and similar animals). 


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